National Partnership for Women & Families

Bypassing Justice: Additional Resources

Because parental involvement statutes, case law, court rules and local practice differ widely between and even within states, advocates acting locally are best positioned to improve the operation of the bypass in their region.

The resources below — a sample of some of the materials available — may be helpful to those who want to learn more.

Articles and Essays

  • Jennifer Blasdell, Mother, May I?: Ramifications for Parental Involvement Laws for Minors Seeking Abortion Services, 10 AM. U.J. GENDER SOC. POL'Y & L. 287 (2002).
  • Khiara M. Bridges, An Anthropological Meditation on Ex Parte Anonymous — A Judicial Bypass Procedure for an Adolescent’s Abortion, 94 CAL. L. REV. 215 (2006).
  • Amy Butler & Deb Bailey, The Maturity and Competence of Girls Obtaining Abortions: Are Parental Involvement Laws Needed? 7 J. POLICY PRACTICE (2008).
  • J. Shoshanna Ehrlich, Grounded in the Reality of Their Lives: Listening to Teens Who Make the Abortion Decision Without Involving Their Parents, 18 BERKELEY WOMEN’S L.J. 61 (2003).
  • Martin Guggenheim, Minor Rights: The Adolescent Abortion Cases, 30 HOFSTRA L. REV. 589 (2002).
  • Lisa R. Pruitt, Toward a Feminist Theory of the Rural, 2007 UTAH L. REV. 421.
  • Carol Sanger, Decisional Dignity: Teenage Abortion, Bypass Hearings, and the Misuse of Law, 18 COLUM. J. GENDER & L. 409 (2009).
  • Carol Sanger, Regulating Teenage Abortion in the United States: Politics and Policy, 18 INT’L J. L. POLICY & FAM. 305 (2004).
  • Helena Silverstein and Leanne Speitel, "Honey, I Have No Idea": Court Readiness to Handle Petitions to Waive Parental Consent for Abortion, 88 IOWA L. REV. 75 (2002).


  • J. Shoshanna Ehrlich, Who Decides? The Abortion Rights of Teens (2006).
  • Helena Silverstein, Girls on the Stand: How Courts Fail Pregnant Minors (2007).

Reports or Studies

  • ACOG Committee Opinion, Number 424, January 2009, "Abortion Access and Training," from the Committee on Health Care for Underserved Women
  • Nancy Adler et al., Abortion among Adolescents, 58 American Psychologist 211-217 (2003).
  • Amanda Dennis, et al., The Impact of Laws Requiring Parental Involvement for Abortion: A Literature Review, Guttmacher Institute, March 2009.
  • Mary Griffin-Carlson & Paula Schwanenflugel, Adolescent Abortion and Parental Notification: Evidence for the Importance of Family Functioning on the Perceived Quality of Parental Involvement in U.S. Families, 39 Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 543-553 (1998).
  • Stanley Henshaw & Kathyrn Kost, Parental Involvement in Minors’ Abortion Decisions, 24 Family Planning Perspectives 196-207 (1992). Michael Resnick et al., Patterns of Consultation among Adolescent Minors Obtaining an Abortion, 64 American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 310-316 (1994).
  • University of Chicago Medical Center, Family Planning and Contraceptive Research, "A Shifting Landscape: Parental Involvement Laws and their Effect on Minors," January 13, 2010.
  • Laurie Zabin et al., To Whom Do Inner-City Minors Talk about Their Pregnancies? Adolescents’ Communication with Parents and Parent Surrogates, 24 Family Planning Perspectives 148-173 (1992).

National Websites

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